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STC (Sound Transmission Class), RW (European) as per ISO 7171,
MTC (Music/Machinery Transmission Class),
OITC (OutdoorIndoor Transmission Class)
Note: This document is an extension/adaptation of a document explaining STC and OITC to be found at HYPERLINK "http://www.peerlessproducts.com/acoustical/STCandOITC.doc" http://www.peerlessproducts.com/acoustical/STCandOITC.doc
It is expanded (+ additional adjustments and more indepth comments) with the MTC and RW single number rating. The related mathematical MTC approach was explained by Dr. Noral D. Stewart a US acoustic consultant, member of ASTM to the Author Eric Desart, who adjusted/expanded this document for use in the studiotips acoustics group.
The additional MTC single number rating was designed by H. Stanley Roller, Architectural Construction Manager, Acoustics, United States Gypsum Company, in order to compensate for the neglect of the STC Class in view of low frequent noise as music and machinery.
TL: Transmission Loss ASTM E90
TL values per frequency band in onethird octave bands to be used for the calculation of the single number ratings are obtained as per ASTM E90 and rounded to the nearest whole dB TL value.
This deviate from the European and ISO approach, which mostly use TL values rounded to 1/10 dB. The difference between both approaches can cause differences on the rounded resulting single number ratings of 1 dB. Suggestions where made within ASTM meetings to alter the ASTM E90 approach to an accuracy of 1/10 dB. However most likely the standard used method of rounding TL values to whole dB values will continue to exist.
STC: Sound Transmission Class ASTM E41387 (Reapproved 1994) Classification for Rating Sound Insulation
The Sound Transmission Class (STC) method assigns a single number rating to measured Sound Transmission Loss (TL) data obtained in accordance with ASTM E90. The method compares a family of numbered contours with onethird octave band TL data covering the onethird octave bands from 125 Hz to 4000 Hz, inclusive. The number of the contour that best fits the data gives the STC rating.
All contours are defined across the onethird octave band range 125 Hz to 4000 Hz, inclusive, and are numbered according to their value at the 500 Hz band. The numbered contours are generated from a reference contour, which defines STC0. The onethird octave band values of a numbered contour are computed by adding the contour number (which must be an integer) to the reference contour values for all bands.
For example, the 45contour has a value of 45 dB in the 500 Hz band, as well as 29dB (4516 dB) in the 125 Hz band, 32dB (4513 dB) in the 160 Hz band, and so on.
STC Reference Contour1/3Octave Band [Hz]125160200250315400500630Reference Contour [dB]161310741+0+1STC Reference Contour (continued)1/3Octave Band [Hz]8001000125016002000250031504000Reference Contour [dB]+2+3+4+4+4+4+4+4
To calculate the STC,
Select a trial contour for comparison with the measured TL data.
Identify bands with deficiencies, where the measured TL data fall below the contour under consideration. The magnitude of the deficiency is the difference between the TL value and the contour value for that band. No credit is given for TL data above the contour.
Sum the deficiencies and identify the maximum deficiency.
Increase the trial contour number in 1dB increments to find the highestnumbered contour that meets both of the following criteria:
The sum of the deficiencies is less than or equal to 32 dB, and
The maximum deficiency in any one band does not exceed 8 dB.
The resulting value at 500 Hz represents the STC value.
RW ISO 7171 ed. 1 1982 and ISO 7171 ed. 2 1996 ISO European equivalent of the US STC Class
Basically the European approach equals the US approach. The main differences are the frequency range. STC covers the range 125 Hz to 4000 Hz, while RW covers 100 Hz to 3150 Hz.
So both cover 16 onethird octave bands.
STC equals the 500 Hz band of the reference curve with 0 dB, While RW sets the 500 Hz reference value to 52 dB, equaling a standard separation between houses.
The calculation methods show that this level doesn't matter. Important is the shape of the reference curve (relative weighing), which are comparable for both standards.
ISO 7171 ed.1 1982 uses the same maximum deficiency 8 dB rule as noted in point 4. b
As such the RW calculation method of this edition equals exactly the principles described in points 1. to 4.
ISO 7171 ed.2 1996 skipped this 8 dB rule, substituting this rule by new single number ratings (not covered by this document). The RW however is still used as a standard single number rating, without inclusion this 8 dB rule (meaning old pr1996 and new RW's calculated on the same TL values can differ from one another).
ISO 7171 RW Reference Contour1/3Octave Band [Hz]100125160200250315400500Reference Contour [dB]3336394245485152ISO 7171 RW Reference Contour (continued)1/3Octave Band [Hz]630800100012501600200025003150Reference Contour [dB]5354555656565656When we should shift this ISO 7171 RW reference contour one will notice that the contour is exactly similar to the ASTM E41387 contour with this difference that ISO has an additional value for the 100 Hz band, and one lacking value for the 4000 Hz.
Since the lowest frequencies are often the most defining ones in the calculation of a single number rating, the standard European approach is a bit more stringent than the US approach.
ISO 7171 RW Shifted Reference Contour1/3Octave Band [Hz]100125160200250315400500Reference Contour [dB]1916
13107410ISO 7171 RW Shifted Reference Contour (continued)1/3Octave Band [Hz]630800100012501600200025003150Reference Contour [dB]12344444
To calculate the RW,
Contrary to STC, the TL (in Europe called R) values must be given with an accuracy of 1/10 dB
Select a trial contour for comparison with the measured TL data.
Identify bands with deficiencies, where the measured TL data fall below the contour under consideration. The magnitude of the deficiency is the difference between the TL value and the contour value for that band. No credit is given for TL data above the contour.
Sum the deficiencies and identify the maximum deficiency.
Increase the trial contour number in 1dB increments to find the highestnumbered contour that meets both of the following criteria:
The sum of the deficiencies is less than or equal to 32 dB, and
The 8 dB rule
Old ISO 7171 ed. 1 1982: The maximum deficiency in any one band does not exceed 8 dB.
New ISO 7171 ed. 2 1996: The 8 dB rule is skipped all together and substituted by alternative single number correction factors, one for a more accurate calculated dB(A) weighting and a second for traffic/music noise (not covered by this document).
This means one should be careful interpreting existing RW's, since values dated before ed. 2 of the standard, cover a bit a different content.
The resulting value at 500 Hz represents the RW value.
MTC: Music/Machinery Transmission Class Classification for Rating Sound Insulation for music and machinery
Even when RW is a bit more stringent than STC, both standards, give a very low relative importance in relation to low frequencies, making it a bad approach to rate single number insulation values in function of traffic, mechanical noise sources and music.
Therefore a new class was designed by H. Stanley Roller, Architectural Construction Manager, Acoustics, United States Gypsum Company, in order to compensate for the neglect of the STC Class in view of this low frequent noise.
This class however never became an official standard, and most likely never will be.
The following is a poetic license by the author as a possible explanation (without knowing the exact history, open for corrective suggestions by readers of this document):
Both the European RW and the ASTM STC class are old norms designed in a period, that computers and electronic calculators where still rare objects, hard to get by. That made logarithmic calculations, on which most acoustic calculations are based, difficult and time consuming, certainly for people the standards where meant for.
This resulted in a more graphical approach, only needing arithmetic calculations. In fact from a mathematical/acoustical approach this is a rather inaccurate approach, which is based on empirical statistics. New norms as OITC and lots of others, are much more logical from a mathematical point of view, taking the nowadays calculation means into account. In fact exact logarithmic calculated single number ratings are easier with current calculation means, than the old approach, which is much more complicated to put in simple formulae.
The MTC Class is 100% based on an STC calculation, with the same reference spectrum and the same frequency range, but with some added restrictions calculated on the two lowest frequency bands of 125 Hz and 160 Hz.
This method was most likely chosen, since it started from a wellknown STC calculation procedure, meaning that acceptance of this rather graphical method (complex for easy calculation) could be expected to be good.
However the existence now of the later designed OITC class for outdoor noise (with a much more modern acoustic/mathematical approach) will most likely prevent the MTC to become a new official standard. One can expect that new norms will much more resemble the OITC approach.
STC Reference Contour1/3Octave Band [Hz]125160200250315400500630Reference Contour [dB]161310741+0+1STC Reference Contour (continued)1/3Octave Band [Hz]8001000125016002000250031504000Reference Contour [dB]+2+3+4+4+4+4+4+4
A) To calculate the MTC, one first starts with the standard STC procedure
Select a trial contour for comparison with the measured TL data.
Identify bands with deficiencies, where the measured TL data fall below the contour under consideration. The magnitude of the deficiency is the difference between the TL value and the contour value for that band. No credit is given for TL data above the contour.
Sum the deficiencies and identify the maximum deficiency.
Increase the trial contour number in 1dB increments to find the highestnumbered contour that meets both of the following criteria:
The sum of the deficiencies is less than or equal to 32 dB, and
The maximum deficiency in any one band does not exceed 8 dB.
The resulting value at 500 Hz represents the STC value.
B) Then one adds the following restrictions/additions to the STC procedure:
Check if there are deficiencies or surpluses at the 125 Hz and 160 Hz bands (calculated contour versus TL values) after determining the STC contour.
If you have deficiencies in one or both frequency bands, i.e. the TL is less than the contour:
Lower the contour further until these deficiencies are eliminated.
Then read the MTC as the value of the contour at 500 Hz, yielding an MTC that is lower than the STC.
If after determining the STC, you have surpluses at 125 AND 160 Hz, or surpluses at 125 OR 160 Hz while the other value is 0 (meaning contour not lowered by point 6. a ) the MTC is going to be more than the STC:
Add the surpluses at 125 and 160 Hz.
Divide that sum by 3, and round result to the unit (whole dB's).
Add the result to the STC, with this limit that the MTC can never be more than STC plus 4.
OITC: OutdoorIndoor Transmission Class ASTM E133290 (Reapproved 1994)
Standard Classification for Determination of OutdoorIndoor Transmission Class
ASTM under the leadership of another USG staff member Keith Walker, did standardize another measure:
The OutdoorIndoor Transmission Class (OITC) method assigns a single number rating to measured Sound Transmission Loss (TL) data obtained in accordance with ASTME90. The OITC is defined as the Aweighted sound level reduction of a test specimen in the presence of an idealized mixture of transportation noises: aircraft takeoff, freeway, and railroad passby. The rating is computed from measured TL data in onethird octave bands from 80 Hz to 4000Hz, inclusive.
Note from the author: The OITC approach is a modern acoustic/mathematical logic and easy to calculate approach. One can enter the whole standard in one single formula. In fact one can easily substitute the reference spectrum by any custom spectrum covering any frequency range one desires. The level of the spectrum itself doesn't matter since the logarithmic sum factor 100.13 is integrated to correct the formula to a frequency related energetic distribution. In arithmetic terms: the spectrum and its sum is used to recalculate the relative contribution (percentage) of the individual frequency bands, versus a total of 100%.
In order to use this approach for other spectra, just enter a dB(A) weighted spectrum, calculate the logarithmic sum of this spectrum, and substitute the factor 100.13 by this logarithmic total.
To compute the OITC:
Subtract the measured specimen TL for each onethird octave band from the corresponding Aweighted Reference Spectrum for that band. Aweighted Reference Spectrum levels are:
Aweighted Reference Spectrum1/3Octave Band [Hz]80100125160200250315400500Aweighted Reference Spectrum [dB(A)]80.582.984.984.686.186.487.488.289.8Aweighted Reference Spectrum (continued)1/3Octave Band [Hz]6308001000125016002000250031504000Aweighted Reference Spectrum [dB(A)]89.189.289.089.689.089.288.386.285.0
Perform a logarithmic sum of the onethird octave band results of Step 1,
The OITC is the difference, rounded to the nearest decibel, between the value 100.13 and the logarithmic sum from Step 2. Note this value of 100.13 is the to 2 decimals rounded logarithmic sum of the Aweighted reference spectrum
The entire process can be conveniently expressed in a mathematical equation:
where AWRSi is the Awt. Reference Sound Level and TLi is the Sound Transmission Loss, for each onethird octave band. (The second term of this equation is the logarithmic sum mentioned in Step 2.)
Note Older TL test reports, and TL test reports from some laboratories with smaller reverberation chambers, may not include data for the 80 Hz and 100 Hz bands. Such test reports cannot be used to compute OITC.
Note from the Author:
While indeed a deviating frequency range does not allow an official OITC value as per the current standard, the method easily allows to adjust the frequency range (explained before in document) resulting in an unofficial single number rating, but which is still much more representative than the alternative STC rating when lowfrequent noise is involved.
Remember: One can easily apply the method for specific purposes as e.g. standardized music spectra.
Eric Desart Page PAGE 6 1 March 2002
Eric Desart Page PAGE 1 1 March 2002
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